Papers presented at General Meetings Of the  Lithgow District Historical Society

 No 18



Date : 7th May 1974  Speaker   Frank Winchester


(This paper was first presented before members of the Mount Victoria Historical Society in April 1974)


National Library of Australia And  ISBN O 85866 015 6


Page 1

1.   Pilgrim Inn                          1830                Lapstone Hill          Blaxland

2.   Lord Byron                        1838                Lapstone Hill               Blaxland

3.   Valley Inn                           1831                Fitzgeralds Valley         Valley Heights

Woolpack Inn

Welcome Inn

4.   Blue Mountain Inn              1845         Lawson

5.   Springwood Inn                  1851         Springwood

6    Woodman Inn                    1834        Twenty Mile Hollow    Woodford

Kings Arms

7.   Bathurst Traveller               1833                Jamisons Valley      Wentworth Falls

Weatherboard Inn

8.   Shepherd and His Flock     1835                Pulpit Hill                                              Pulpit Hill

9.   Scotch Thistle                     1832                Blackheath                                           Blackheath

10.   One Tree Hill Inn                                      One Tree hill                                         Mt. Victoria

Perry's Family Hotel

Imperial Hotel

11.   Golden Fleece                  1823                Mt. York                                              Hartley Vale

Royal Garter

Mt. York Hotel

12.  Rising Sun                         1835                Mt Victoria              Little Hartley

Bridge Inn

Kings Arms

Coach and Horses

Mt. Victoria Inn

13.Farriers Arms Inn        1856            Mt. Victoria            Little Hartley

14.   Harp of Erin                     1832                Mt. Victoria            Little Hartley

Plough Inn

15.   Rose Inn                           1846                Mt. Victoria          Little Hartley

16.   Kerosene Inn                    1857                Mt. Victoria         Little Hartley

17.   Albion Inn                        1849                Hartley                   Hartley

Royal Hotel Hartley

19.   Shamrock Inn                   1853                Hartley           Hartley

20.   Royal Garter                     1839                Hartley                Hartley

Albion Inn

Hartley Hotel

Coach and Horses Inn

21.   Australia Arms                  1858                Blackman's Gap          Bowenfels

22.   Travellers Inn                    1833                Hassans Walls             Bowenfels

23.   Eagle and Child                 1836                Hassans Walls              Bowenfels

24.   Bee Hive                          1839                Hassans Walls              Bowenfels

25.   Bowenfels Inn                   1865                Bowenfels                  Bowenfels

26.   Royal Hotel                       1865               Bowenfels'                    Bowenfels

27.   Glasgow Arms                 1842    Bowenfels                                Bowenfels

Bowenfels Family Inn

Royal Hotel

28.   Royal Mail Inn                  1835                Solitary Creek        Rydal

Woodman Inn

29.   Queen Victoria Inn           1838                Solitary Creek        Rydal

30.   Ferngrove Inn                   1865                Ferngrove              Rydal


31 Currency Lass                                 1858    Thorp's  Pinch       Mt.Lambie

32.  Trafalgar Inn                      1834    Honeysuckle Flat              Meadow Flat

Crown Inn

33.  Rose. Thistle and                           1838                              Diamond swamp


34.  Gold Diggers Arms                        1860    Frying Pan Creek  Yetholme

35.  Frying Pan Inn                               1860    Frying Pan Creek   Yetholme

36.  Green Man Inn                              1834    Green Swamp        Walang

37. Plough Tnn                                     1833     O'Connell    O'Connell

38.  Dun Cow                                      1828    Bathurst Plains              Bathurst


The work I have done  in regard to the inns of the western road has resulted   in long lists of names, dates and license fees, recorded from early licenses issued, held in the State Archives.


These records are not complete and have been supplemented by reference to Court records of the Hartley and Lithgow   Courts, records of journeys published, newspaper items and advertisements of Sydney and Bathurst papers and some reference to Colonial Secretary correspondence. I have totally ignored reminiscences, finding them contradictory and conflicting.


The scope covers the distance between Emu Ford and Bathurst, excluding both these places, Bathurst alone in 1860 having fifty inns and taverns, and 1 have confined myself to the period before the advance of the railway, for with its coming the road became totally neglected and deteriorated.


The inns which had already been reduced to selling slops and store goods, or had been given up as not paying, closed with exceptions, as where a new kind of hotel appeared catering for the tourist or those 'taking the air', or where a sufficient aggregation of people established a clientele to promote grog shops, as on the railway workings.


Trains began to carry the loads of drays and carts. People favoured the railway for passenger transport and travellers often loaded gigs, carriages and horses for that. part of the,- journey available by rail. The roads were deserted and the inns closed.


To-day, of the earlier  inns only six survive in any association with the present hotels: The Springwood Inn, Blue Mountain Inn, Scotch Thistle, One Tree hill Inn, Glasgow Arms, the Plough Inn, although others are still existing as residences and relies of the days: The Golden Fleece, Mt. Victoria Inn, Rose Inn, Kerosene Inn, Albion Inn, Farmers Inn, Shamrock Inn, Australia Arms, Bowenfels Inn Royal Hotel, Glasgow Arms, Queen Victoria Inn, Frying Pan Inn, and the New Inn. ,


Athough the 1870's saw the decline, the 1870's began the development of such Hotels as Bile's (Gearins) 1880, The Great Western(Carrington) 1883, the Belgravia (Hydro Majestic) 1891 and many others, built to cater for the needs of a new generation and more affluent era.


Prior to 1830 only two inns were established on this length of road, Pierce Collits' "Golden Fleece" at Mt York, and Thomas Kite's "Dun Cow" at Bathurst Plains with that of John Mills at Weatherboard under construction, but by the end of 1835. thirteen were established.


1. Pilgrim Inn,               Lapstone Hill,   licensed to James Evans  30.6.1830                                 

2. Valley Inn.                Fitzgeralds Valley,  licensed to William  Brotherton    22.6.1831

3. Woodman Inn,         Twenty Mile Hollow,    licensed Thomas Pembroke ' 27.9.1834

4. Bathurst Traveller      Weatherboard   licensed Thomas Redford  

5. Shepherd and his Flock        Pulpit Hill       licensed Andrew Murray     2.7.1835

6. Scotch Thistle           Blackheath   licensed Andrew Gardiner   1832

7. Rising Sun                Mt Victoria licensed  Amelia Skene   17.8.1835

8. Harp of Erin             Mt Victoria licensed Michael Flannagan 11.2.1832

9. Travellers Inn           Hassens Walls    licensed Michael  Keenan    8.8.1833

10. Royal Mail ,             Solitary Creek., licensed George White    1835

11. Trafalgar Inn,          Honesuckle Flat,       licensed Lyndia Barnes  17.8.1834

12. Green Man Inn,      Green Flat,  licensed Andrew Livingstone   1834,

13. Plough Inn              O'Connell,                    licensed Daniel Roberts    1833




By 1840 19 more were functioning

1 Pilgrim Inn                                  licensed to Francis Brownlow

2. Woolpack Inn previously Valley inn,     licensed to Thomas Redford

3. Lord Byron Lapstone hill,       vacant with death of owner James Shaw

4. Kings Arms previously Woodman Inn     licensed to Josiah Workman

5. Bathurst  Traveller,      licensed Abraham Joseph Levy

6. Shepherd & his Flock        licensed to Thomas Hunter

7. Scotch Thistle         licensed to Henry Wilson

8. Mt Victoria Inn    previously Coach and Horses

9. Rose Inn          licensed Joseph Collits

10. Albion Inn,     licensed James Nairn newly built

8. Coach & Horses, previously Rising Sun, l icensed to James Howard. Newly built

9. Plough Inn, previously Harp of Erin,   licensed to Andrew Gardiner

10. Royal Garter, Hartley,  licensed Thomas Morris, newly built

11. Travellers Inn,      licesned to Michael Keenan

12.Eagle & Child,   licensed Phillip Mylecharane

13.Bee Hive Inn        licensed to WilliamEanes

14. Woodman Inn previously Rolak Mail  licensed to John Jaggers

15. Queen Victoria Inn          licensed Henry Rotton

16.Trafalgar Inn        licensed PhillipStott

17.Rose Thistle and Shamrock     licensed to Robert Dykes

18.Green Man Inn      licensed to Lacklan McKay

19.Plough Inn                                                  


In 1850 there were 18 inns

1. Pilgrim

2. Woolpack Inn          licensed Joseph James

3.Blue Mountains Inn    Licensed Henry Wilson

4.Kings Arms,         licensed Joseph Cobcroft

5.Weatherboard Inn, previously Bathurst Traveller,  licensed David Jones

6.Shepherd & his flock ,   Licensed Richard William Heard

7.Scothch Thistle,      licensed William Bloodworth

8.Mt Victoria inn previously Coach & Horses

9.Rose Inn           licensed Joseph Collits

10Albion Inn        licensed James Nairn newly built

11 Shamrock Inn     licensed Patrick Phillips

12.Eagle & Child      licensed James Mylecharane

13. GIasgow  Arms    licensed. James Haynes

14. Woodman Inn   licensed James Caulfield

15 Queen Victoria Inn

16.  Crown Inn,             licensed Lawrence Durack

17.  New Inn, previously Green Men,      licensed   Maria Jones

18.  Plough Inn,     licensed  Daniel  Roberts

in 1860 there were tventy-five inns:

1.  Pilgrim                          licensed J.0. Wascoe

2. Welcome Inn, previously Woolpack,      licensed Hodgson AIlan

3.  Blue Mountain Inn,           licensed Thomas Dunn

4.  Springwood Hotel,              licensed Thomas Boland

5   Weatherboard Inn,               licensed Richard Norris

6.  Shepherd and His Flock

7. Scotch Thistle,              licensed William Tanner

8. One Tree Hill Inn

9. Mt. Victoria Inn          licensed Martha Sherringham

10 Rose Inn,                licensed T.G..Markwell

11.   Kerosene Hotel,      licensed John Martin

12 Royal1 hotel, previously Albion Inn    licensed William Dunn

13.   Shamrock Inn.       licensed Patrick Phillips

14. Coach and Horses,    licensed James Young

 15 Australia Arms,     licensed Salmon

.16 Eagle and Child

17 Glasgow Arms ,        licensed George Lee

18  Woodman Inn

19. Queen Victoria Inn          licesned John McLaughlan

20  Currency Lass .        licensed H..;.. Bedford

21.Crown Inn         licensed ,           Lawrence Durack

22 Frying Pan Inn      licensed Henry  Parsons

23 Gold Diggers inn,     licensed John Green

24.   New Inn,    licensed James Smith

25.   Plough Inn,        licensed Daniel Roberts


Of the licensees,  a goodly number appear to have, been emancipists.

We can point to George  White, born colony;  Daniel Roberts, came free

Michael Keenan,, late, private, 39th Regt. but of others

James Evans, William Brotherton, Thomas Pembroke, free by servitude;

Thomas Readford life sentence

Andrew Gard.iner, John Skenes Thomas Barnes, all ticket of leave:

 Andrew Murray, Pierce Collits, Thomas Kite ,Michael Flanagan, free by servitude.


Of the first sixteen four were free men, one unknown and eleven ticket-of-leave       and this ties in with William Cummings assertion,        when I came to the colony in 1822... it was not uncommon for a ticket of leave man to be the ostensible landlord of a public house". 


The early practise to encourage the opening of inns with facilities for travellers was to allow the prospective inn keeper to establish his house license was granted and  a sufficient area of land granted to support the inn and allow it to function.


Pierce Collits was given 200 acres, John Mills 100 on the site and a further 400 acres elsewhere in a more favourable area because of the apparent paucity of the site at Weatherboard.. Michael Flannagan and Thomas Michael Pembroke were each given 100 acres.


Licenses- were granted by the Colonial Secretary until after 1830 when the system of licensing by the Licensing Court was instituted.


Generally they depended upon selling drinks to draymen and hosts such as   Michael  Keenan and John Skene were no doubt fully aware of the benefits that a situation near a stockade would bring- and were under no illusion of trying to earn a living by selling bed and breakfasts to travellers, but regarded the convict, soldier and guards as sources of custom and patronage, if not served openly then slyly. and this could have applied to several situations.


In fact Mitchell wrote of Skene, "he has  lately left of the department ... he has built a house on the roadside and so situated it can -scarcely be doubted that he will encourage drinking and disorder amongst the men employed in that neighbourhood


Edward Hargraves wrote in 1851, "inns have been established at distances varying from 10 to 18 miles for the convenience of squatters travelling towards Sydney from the interior, but at the time 1 am speaking of, the innkeepers, one and all, complained sadly of this poverty of the squatters generally, whom they represented to be so badly off that they could not bear the expense of stopping at their houses, but commonly camped in the bush".


 Indeed that is how most people travelled and most inns were conveniently situated advantageously to cater for other needs; water, stabling, etc.


John Ford wrote "the inns are not placed with reference to the convenience of travellers but with reference to water, that scarcest and most valuable of all articles in .,Australia". He a visiting Englishman wrote further, "..the inns of this. country are certainly first rate.


The cleanliness of the beds, the, very first-object of  the traveller is here above all praise. -From their style one can scarcely credit that these inns are in the bush. Although not so large, the rooms are and as completely furnished as any in our best provincial. towns (England) and their bouffet is covered with plated articles of all kinds, and glass ready for use, and bright as they can be made".


The first inn on the road was the Golden Fleece of Pierce Collits, at the foot of Mt. York. .We can date its establishment by the record in Robert Hoddle's log, who when surveying Bell's Line.. in October, 1823, wrote-, "our line ran into the mountain road near  Collits' Inn". It ceased to exist as an inn when by-passed by the new road down Mt. Victoria, though -,with  the development of the shale workings at Hartley Vale it was re-opened in 1876 as the Mt York Hotel (John Kelly), but with the opening later of hotels more convenient to the township in 1878 (Comet, 18?8; Royal, 1879; Vale, 1879) it went out of existence again as a licensed house. Of the Golden Fleece, one traveler in 1827 wrote. "after a smart ride of two miles we arrived at Collits' Inn, the Golden Fleece... I assure you there is only one better inn in the whole colony  it is warm, comfortable and commodious in the inside, as it is beautiful and picturesque without.  The house is neat in the extreme , -and the- brightness, ,order and  almost Dutch cleanliness of the kitchen pleased and surprised me.


Our horses were delivered over to the hostler with perfect confidence that  they would got a belly full, for we were in a land of plenty...their chafed backs were well bathed in .salt and water and we adjourned to the house. and discussed a supper in the midst of the Blue Mts. as good as any we could have had, for aught 1 know at the Blue Boar at Holborn.


It was an American sort of supper, including excellent hyson tea, double refined sugar. plenty of cream and butter, as hard as cheese, and the water crystal itself. When 1 saw such a quantity of good furniture. glass and earthenware, 1 first wondered how such fragile furniture could have been brought so safely across      the Mountains. but felt no surprise as soon as 1 heard that the lime itself of which.

the house was built was brought all the way from Parrammatta, a distance of seventy miles, and of course, when they can bring lime, they may as well bring loaf sugar. After excellent beds we resumed our journey in the morning.


All this good accommodation is not had for nothing, some people thinking the charges are high at this house under the hill... I thought then extremely moderate, everything considered".


Governor Darling stayed there on his journey to and .from Bathurst on the 7th and 15th of November, 1829. and Governor Bourke in 1832 .and 1834.  Bourke's son Richard traveled with his father in 1832 and wrote thus' to a friend "arrived rather tired at a neat little inn.  Natives collected in numbers in the evening. as naked as little pixies that Nanny talked of. and giving us what is called a corroborry...what we called savage dance". Next morning he added, .."Oh. My dear Jan ... the bugs and fleas last night, and 1, who thought myself bug proof. Dolly, dear Dolly. I'm ruined for ever. 1 got up at three o clock this morning and threw myself into the Riverlet that flows before this detestable inn".


As compensation for bypassing his inn by the new Mitchell's road an allotment of 320 acres was made and Collits finally determined to take  three acres at the  bridge of the Riverlet for the inn, and the remainder on the Lachlan River as farming land.


Finally the new inn was built, and licensed as the Royal Garter. Collits seemed to show little enthusiasm and it appears to have been finally erected and opened in order to secure the promised remainder  of 317 acres.


Upon completion the inn was apparently advertised for disposal. The Sydney Morning Herald on May, 19 1839 carried the advertisement ..."To be sold at auction..a first rate inn and premises on the Bathurst Road at Riverlet, within a short distance of the new Court House in the village of Hartley.  It is built of cut stone and contains on the ground floor one dining room 20 x 14, two Parlours. three bedrooms, with underground cellars.

0n the second floor  are four bedrooms. There are also a detached kitchen, built of wood with .larder, and two bedrooms for servants ...a six stall stable and sheds for gigs ,-and.

also huts for men travelling with teams...four superior stockyards and a garden of one acre and a haIf.

The whole comprises about three acres  title from the crown".


However, apparently not sold this was licensed on the 4th June, 1839 as -the Royal Garter in the name of  Thomas Morris, the third husband of Sophia Collits, and the next year David Anderson as the Albion Inn. 


Mrs Meredith in 1839, making  a journey over the mountains was not impressed with the Royal Garter or the Morris families supervision.  "we  journeyed on to our  mid-day resting place called the Riverlet,  the little stream at this place being by some remarkable accident rightly named. 


A new glaringly smart looking inn here promised tolerable accommodation.  It was as fine as twenty different kinds of coloured paint could make it. Panellings and pickings out of rainbow hues were set off by pillars of imitative and varnished marble, the like of which no quarry ever knew, and these again touched off with bronze paint and guilding, gleamed in the sun with almost dazzling lustre.


A good verandah led by french windows to the two front rooms into which I walked without seeing any inhabitants or attendants. A few gaudily painted chairs, a small bad mirror in a large gilt frame, thickly shrouded  with yellow gauze, and a new cedar table covered with either appartment.


After a long ineffectual sonata on a hand bell, just as I began to despair of its power a young girl shuffled along the hall from some of the back settlements, holding fast by the door handle, for she was almost  too intoxicated to stand, took my order  for luncheon, and after many vain attempts at length succeeded in wiping the table with a very dirty apron. Her dull coloured hair hung in matted tangles about her neck and ears, her dress was disordered,  torn and dirty, and her face bloated and stupid from the effects of drink. never did drunkenness wear a more revolting aspect , and I felt relieved when the wretched creature left the room.  My companions had a similar tale to tell of the male portion of the establishment…every soul was drunk and it was sometime before they could arouse anyone to attend to the horses. The same unfortunate girl I had seen before, laid our cloth and brought what we wanted, or rather what we could get, for I imagine the copious  libations indulged in by the whole household had made them ill supplied.  Bread and a few eggs (positively without ham)  which our ministering Bacchane rolled on the floor as she staggered in with them formed our repast, but she took pains to impress upon us the pleasing assurance that  "there was plenty o' ale an' sperrits".


We strolled down to the banks of the little rivulet, where I found many beautiful flowering shrubs and the verdure of the adjacent little flats showed how excellent a garden might be made there, but I fear never will: idleness and drinking are such besetting sins and money to provide them both so easily earned by "keeping a public: in this colony, that nothing demanding bodily exertion is attempted.  Meat can run about and feed itself on the wild hills and flour they can buy" fruit and vegetables the 'don’t heed", as they would demand some little labor to produce.  As we returned to the house, I looked at it again, as it stood in raw, shiny, comfortless newness, like a great toy freshly unpacked.  Behind it lay a crowd of dirty, old ruinous hovels, that formerly served in its stead, and still were used as outhouses, stables, etc. all broken and half thatched.  All the fences within sight exhibited the same dilapidated aspect, whilst ash-heaps and other less slightly things lay all around.


Actually other members of the Collits family too, were associated with the establishment of inns along this road.  Thomas Michael Pembroke was the first husband of Frances Collits.  The 1832 Post Office Guide records, "Twenty mile Hollow where there is a good spring of water and the land is reserved as a resting place.  There is also a hut kept by Pembroke on the right".


On the 17th February, 1831, Pembroke applied for land in consideration for his having erected a house for travellers.  His house for travellers was licensed by him in 1834  as the Woodman Inn and on the 14th June, 1839 advertised in the Herald.. *"To be sold by auction ... Fifty acres of land, twenty of which are cleared and fit for cultivation...situated in the Twenty mile

Hollow on the Bathurst Road, together with a well built stone and wood house on the roadside, known as the 'sign of the Woodman', which is licensed and comprises nine excellent rooms, stabling for six horses, store, stock and sheepyards etc. with a productive garden and an overflowing spring of pure water. The auctioneer is aware that in calling public notice to the above valuable property it is scarcely necessary to point out the value of its situation. The, convenience and extent of the

premises render it one of the best adopted houses on the roads for a travellers  inn, and beauty of the scenery, commanding extensive view of the eastern and southern parts of the colony, Campbelltowin and the Hawkesbury, for as complete a retreat as could be desired. Any young couple with enterprise and a small capital might here ensure to themselves a rapid independence, as the house must command an extensive trade. Twenty acres are cleared and may be cropped immediately, and with a little more clearance the proprietor might grow hay and corn. The title is a grant from the Crown."    Josiah Workman later licensed it as the Kings Arms', later Buss became the proprietor, it became popularly known as Buss' Inn, eventually closing to become Woodford Academy and a residence.



Joseph Collits built his Rose Inn on land originally surveyed for his father's Royal Garter at Mt. Victoria. Pierce declined this. accepting in its place the Rivulet  site, but at his death still had possession of both areas. Joseph was licensee, but from 1851 it passed through other names till in 1873 Edward Field closed it reportedly heavily in debt.


The remaining Collits in the inn business was Amelia and her husband John Skene.  Skene, a ticket-of- leave man, previously in charge of Road gangs, opened a house at the foot of  Mt. Victoria, the Rising Sun.


 Mitchell commented.. " he has lately left the department,.. he has built a house by the roadside and so situated it  can scarcely be doubted that he will encourage drinking ,and disorder amongst the men employed in that neighborhood".


 James Backhouse in 1835 in passing noted, " the foot of the pass there are two houses one of which -has lately deprived of its license to sell spirits". This was seemingly Skene's Rising Sun and it later appears licensed to Sophia Collits as Rawsthorne, (as the name of her first husband) as the Bridge Inn, and in 1837 and 1838 as the Kings Arms.


It was the decision to sell by tender this land. the reserve of 100 acres at the foot of the pass in 1837 that resulted in the replacement with the splendid Coach and Horses Inn or Rosedale as vie know it to-day.


Purchased by William Cummings.. whether the father or son is not,known, but both were apparently men of substance, and there is no evidence of  either holding the license, so it appears to have been primarily an investment. Cummings Snr. at the age of . 14 had entered the spirit trade and served as a cellarman in London and was acquainted with every aspect of the business in the first class houses of London and England. He came to the Colony in 18221 set himself up in Sydney, and for sixteen years conducted what he  claims to have been the first respectable.public  house in the colony. The son too conducted a hotel  at Goulburn, and in later years  was interested in property at Clear Creek (Peel, Bathurst) where he combined a life as pastoralist and gold buyer.  

The inn, later the Mt Victoria Inn, continued till 1887 as a licensed house, when Nicholas Delaney transferred to a nearby building as the Mt. Victoria Hotel, the old inn becoming a residence as it remains to-day.


It was often confused with another quality house, the Queen Victoria Inn at Solitary Creek..   Here Henry Rotton  began his pursuit as an innkeeper, which finally resulted in connection with other pursuits in great wealth and  influence and respect for Henry Rotton.  He appears as one of the very few who managed to survive at more than  sustenance level.

His Queen Victoria Inn seems always to have had a reputation for courtesy. cleanliness and good food and still stands on the hill overlooking Rydal, having survived till the early 1860's, when the road over Mt. Lambie was deviated. and the inn by-passed.


Alexander  Fraser was a man interested in  the establishment of three inns on the line.  Although not the holder of licenses he was influential in starting the Bathurst Traveller, the Valley Inn and the Queen Victoria Inn. Fraser worked as  a clerk with the Penrith Bench of Magistrates and was married to the second daughter of Rev. Fulton.


As early as 1828, he had made application for land at Fitzgeralds Valley for the erection of an inn, and this granted, on the 7th April, 1831, he reported, 111 have erected on the spot selected a  substantial stone house, 65 ft. long, of 4 rooms, for the accommodation of respectable travellers, at the back of which and immediately joining, another house containing 7 rooms and kitchen; also a stable and extensive stockyards". and this was licensed to William Brotherton on the 22nd June, 1831

as the Valley Inn, later renamed by Richard Kibble the Woolpack Inn in 1834 and the Welcome Ann James 1853.  After closing it became- "Wyoming" the residence of the Hon. Geoffrey Eager.


A man named John Mills was the second individual, after Pierce Collits, to commence the erection and establishment of an inn, in the year 1826, at Jamisons Valley. Mills had been in the colony 14 years and held various  situations as clerk in the Commisariat, and later  the Swan Inn at Penrith, though not his property. At the stage where he had erected a temporary bark dwelling for his family, with the framework for additional- apartments for  the public, he became embarrassed for money, and his title to the premises as they stood were sold by auction by the sheriff.


Alexander Fraser became the purchaser thereof for .250 pounds. He subsequently completed the public accommodation; a house containing 4 bedrooms, 2 servants rooms or sitting rooms, a house for the host and family, an eight-stall stable, store, stockyards etc. at an outlay of capital at least equal to the original purchase money. These he advised completed by the 19th January, 1830. It became licensed as the Bathurst Traveller at Weatherboard known  later as the Weatherboard Inn, and the last licence record we have is Richard Norris in 1868.


This inn was of timber construction and plastered on the inside walls. No trace  of the inn remains. His interest in the Soliltary Creek land began about 1832 when he claimed the 1280 acres of land as a marriage portion for his wife. as the daughter of a clergyman.


The Sydney Gazette reported on the 20th June. 1828, "I have the honour to state that Mr. Levy has erected on  land at Lapstone Hill a good sized weatherboarded house of 4 rooms (1 have seen it myself) with outhouses, piggery, stables, etc". This building on a grant of land to Baronet Levy became licensed on the 30th June 1830 as the Pilrim Inn of James Evans.  The Pilgrim, the first inn from Emu Plains was  built at the top of the long hard pull up Lapstone Hill.  In 1834, the Sydney Morning Herald advertised.. "To capitalists, tavern keepers, inn keepers, agriculturalists and others: For sale the old establishment, well known and respectable inn..the Pilgrim now let to Mr. James Evans at the low rental of 70 pounds per annum.

 Mr Evans has occupied this establishment but a few years and in that time having realised an ample fortune, is saying sufficient for those unacquainted with the line of road.." but of Mr  Evans and his ample fortune, he was shortly afterwards listed as mine host of a small inn at Emu Plains.


Successive licensees seem to have stayed  one or two years and passed on till I  1852 John  Outrim Wascoe took over and continues till 1869 when the  building  was sold and closed as an inn.


It was then described as containing 14 rooms with an kitchen and detached building divided  into 5 compartments…a seven-stall stable in the yard, a stone dairy, sheds, piggery, fowl house and milking sheds…there are also luncheon booths capable of entertaining 200 persons and a skittle alley on the recreation grounds…the garden securely fenced contains the most rare and choice fruit trees in bearing…its salubrious climate admirably adopts it for a gentleman's country residence, a sanatorium or an accommodation place for tourists.


Annabella Boswell in March 1839, visited Mylecharane's Eagle and Child at Bowelfels, .."we reached the inn at which we were to stop the night.  This was a large bare looking house at the junction of our road and that from Bathurst, long known and celebrated as Malachi Ryans, but its celebrity was not flattering, as, though not haunted by ghosts, it was  so infested with creatures more likely to disturb ones rest that I wonder why anyone stopped the night there.   One traveller declared he had been dragged out of bed, another kept up by a continual fight to prevent  himself from being devoured alive, and a nervous lady, being left alone with her invisible tormentors could think of no expedient  save the ringing of a small bell all the weary night to frighten them off.


1832 saw Thomas Barnes writing to the Colonial Secretary imploring the restoration of his ticket of Leave, and a passage to the colony for his separated family, and in 1834 we find the name Lydia Barnes as licensee of the Trafalgar Inn at |Meadow Flat, to be succeeded in later years by Thomas Barnes as the owner of the in and 100 acres of land.  To illustrate the work  Thomas must have put into his creation




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 note the-,, description as in the, Sydney Herald 8th January, 1840 To let,  the well kinown  Public House         called the Trafalgar Inn,     24 miles from Bathurst, on the new line  of road to Sydney, together with 100 acres of land fenced in of which 33 are in cultivation, pat being a garden well stockedwith fruit trees and vegetables..the house contains eleven rooms, kitchen,, store house etc, two stables , two coach houses, mens hut and other buildings..also an excellent well in which there is an abundance of water in the driest seasons.


By 1851 the Trafalgar was the Crown Inn, licensee Lawrence Durack, another traveller records, " …at 8.00we reached the Crown Inn at Meadow Flat, 23 miles from Bathurst where Mrs. Durack's breakfast was superior to any I have seen since I left Sydney.  Everything was of the best and reeking hot…boiled fowls, hams, roast serloin of beef,, chops, potatoes, tea, coffee and bread..this as early as 8.00 was what we did not expect and I promise you she would be very poorly off if she intended to breakfast off wheat we left.


At the Green Man inn, Lachlan McKay in 1841 furnished John Hood with his history. 


He, his wife and six grown-up children, three sons and three daughters were four years ago a starving family in the island of Coll: now he possesses "seventy  head of cattle, seven or eight horses, a vineyard which last year yielded two huindred weight of grapes which were sold at the Bathurst races at a shilling a pound: and a bonny farm giving three crops of at hay, self sown for three years, without plough or harrow and follows, with his sons, the callings of farmer, blacksmith and innkeeper.  Lachlan monopolizes and prospers, and from being in wretched poverty in the isle of Coll, is now thriving, rich and happy. 


"Had it not been for the laird himself, I would never me gotten frae Tobermorey, for I was  a gie bit abun forty, sir . and its no easy getting aff after that age.  But I was the first yemigrant that ever went frae Coll, and it was just Lookit over; and weel was sae, ,for we had tint the coo, and the wife was like to gang daft on our hands altogether….that's her sir, …pointing to a  moving mountain,….she hasna yea word o'English, puir auld creature…and now I'm proud to say she has mair coos than kens what to dobwi'."


Mrs Meredith stopped at Blind Paddy's..The Shepherd and His Flock.  Blind Paddy must have surely been Andrew Murray, the licensee in 1839. "…a couple of decent elderly women appeared to do the honours and ushered us into a small but clean whitewashed room, gaily adorned with feathers and the droll  little pictures usually found in such houses; a bright wood fire was soon crackling and blazing merrily on the white hearth; the homely table was quickly spread with a coarse but snowy white cloth and supper most expeditiously prepared consisting of the never failing dish ham and eggs, chops, damper, tea, and crowning luxury of all - a  dish of hot mealy potatoes smiling most charmingly through their cracked and peeling skins.


Wine in such houses as this is rarely drinkable, but excellent English ale )at 3/6 per quart bottle) is generally found in them,s o that our repast was by no means contemptible, and the air of plain homely cleanliness added to all an unwonted relish.  A tolerable nights rest in a room about the size of a ship-cabin, with a dimity bed and window curtains, and no worse nocturnal visitants than a moderate party of the universal light infantry, ,left me quite recruited and ready for setting forth again on our onward journey.


Colonel Mundry wrote of Blind Paddy's in 1845, then licensed to Thomas James, "..why so called I could neither guess or discover.  We got a substantial and welcome breakfast on ham and eggs and spatched cock, very literally for we witnessed his persuit and heard his death cries"…